如何进行目视五边起落航线飞行(双语)

A pattern can be flown in different ways. First of all, you will be cleared to fly a left or right hand pattern. This is straightforward: if you are cleared to make a left hand pattern all your turns will be to the left and if you are cleared to fly a right hand pattern all your turns will be to the right. To inform the tower that you want to remain in the pattern you will communicate when you request take off: “callsign XXX ready for take off runway XX, remaining in the pattern”

起落航线飞行可以有不同的方式。首先,你会被许可进行左边或者右边的起落航线飞行。来直观的了解一下,如果你被许可进行左起落航线飞行,你之后所有的转向都将是左转。反之,如果你被许可进行右起落航线飞行,你之后所有的转向都将是右转。为了告诉塔台管制员你要进行起落航线飞行,你要在申请起飞时使用“callsign XXX ready for take off runway XX, remaining in the pattern,”

What does a pattern look like?

起落航线长什么样子?


This is an example of a left hand pattern

Mostly you will be flying patterns without an approach controller so you will be in touch with the tower controller at all times. He has the possibility to control your pattern by the following instructions:

下面来举个左起落航线的例子:
通常你会在没有进近管制员的情况下进行起落航线飞行,所以你要全程与塔台管制员保持沟通。塔台管制员可能会通过以下指令来引导你的起落航线飞行。

· Extend upwind 保持一边

· Turn left / right downwind 转向左/右二边

· Extend downwind 延长三边

· I’ll call your base 等待指令转向四边

· Turn left /right base 转向左/右四边

· Maintain best forward speed 保持最快的速度

· Maintain slowest practical speed 保持最慢的速度

· Maintain present speed 保持当前速度

· Speed at your discretion 自行决定速度

All of these instructions are meant to maintain a safe separation from the other traffic. Without these instructions, you as a pilot are expected to maintain your own separation.

以上所有这些指令都是为了保证与其他飞机的安全间隔。在没有这些指令时,作为飞行员你应当求自行保持间隔。

Spacing / sequencing instructions:

间隔 / 序列 的指令

Extend upwind: This means that you should maintain the departure runway heading until ATC calls you to turn.

保持一边 :这个指令表示你需要继续沿跑道方向直线飞行,直到收到管制员转向二边的指令。

Turn left / right downwind: After you take off you will need to get to the downwind leg. This is done by making a 180 degrees turn to the left or to the right depending on which side the tower cleared you to fly your pattern.

转向左 / 右三边: 当你起飞后,你需要通过进行180度的转向飞行来进入三边,转弯方向取决于塔台发出的起落航线许可。

Extend downwind: When instructed to extend downwind you have to extend the downwind leg and pay attention to traffic around you. The controller is giving you the responsibility to maintain a safe distance from other traffic and you are free to turn base when you think it is ready. This does not mean you can turn when you get this instruction as there is a reason why you should extend your downwind.

延长三边 :你收到延长三边的指令后,你需要继续保持三边方向飞行,同时注意你周边的飞机。管制员将保持与周边飞机的安全间隔的责任交给飞行员。当你认为与周边飞机已经有足够的间隔时,可以自行决定何时转向四边。这意味着你不可以在收到这个指令后,在有理由需要继续保持三边的情况下转向四边。

I’ll call your base: Tower informs you to extend the downwind leg but he will tell you when to turn base, in other words at this point ATC will take care of your separation with any other traffic.

等待指令转向四边: 塔台管制员通知你延长三边后,管制员会在他认为你可以转向四边的时候通知你。换句话说,管制员会对你与周边飞机的保持安全间隔负责。

Turn left / right base: This call can come at any time. It can come after the controller told you “I’ll call your base” but he can also just tell you to turn base at any point while you are on downwind. After you receive this call you don’t have to wait for another call while on base to turn final. This is up to the PIC.

转向左 / 四边: 你会在任何时候收到这个指令。管制员可能会在发出“等待指令转向四边”后向你发出这个指令。同时你也可能会在三边的任何时候收到转向四边的指令。当你收到这个指令后不需要其他指令便可以自行决定从四边转向五边。

Make a 360 left / right: From your present position make a 360 degree turn to the left or the right. Don’t make this turn with a bank angle of 90 degrees. A minimum of 1 minute for this turn should be fine, in real life turning an airplane is done by the autopilot with a speed of 3 degrees per second. This means making a 360 will take 360 / 3 = 120 seconds = 2 minutes

/ 盘旋 360度 :从你当前位置进行左或右360度盘旋。不要在此转弯中以90度的倾斜角飞行。完成360度转弯的时间最好不要少于1分钟。在真实的飞行中,飞机将以自动驾驶模式完成转弯。转弯速度为每秒3度。意味着完成一次360度飞行,需要360 / 3=120秒=2分钟。

Speed instructions by tower:

塔台发布的调速指令

Maintain best forward speed: When getting this instruction, it can be a bit tricky. It all depends on your configuration and your position what your “best forward speed” is. When you fly on a downwind leg and you are flying in clean configuration it is much higher than when you are on final at 1000 feet AAL, in landing configuration with your landing gear down. ATC should NOT give you this instruction 5NM or less from landing. Most important to realize when getting this instruction is that ATC wants you to increase the speed; to what speed is totally up to you as PIC, Pilot In Command.

保持最快的速度 :当收到这个指令时,会有一点棘手。你的最快速度取决于你的构型以及你在五边飞行中所处的位置。当你处于光洁构型并在三边飞行时你的最大速度会大于处于着陆构型并放下起落架在五边1000英尺AAL时候的最大速度。管制员不应在你距离落地少于5海里时发出这个指令。最重要的是你要知道当你收到这个指令时,管制员想要你提高速度。具体的速度取决于机长的决定。

Maintain slowest practical speed: This call is also a bit tricky-it is the same as the “maintain best forward speed” as it all depends on your configuration. The more flaps you have the slower you can fly. Most important to realize when getting this instruction is that ATC wants you to reduce the speed; to what speed is totally up to you as PIC.

保持最慢的速度: 这个指令像保持最快速度一样棘手,也同样取决于你的构型。放下的襟翼越多,你的飞行速度就可以越慢。最重要的是你要知道当你收到这个指令时,管制员想要你降低速度。具体的速度取决于机长的决定。

Maintain present speed: This is the most logical one, maintain your current speed.

保持当前速度: 这是一个最容易理解的指令,保持你当前的速度。

Speed at your discretion: You can disregard any previous ATC speed instructions and fly the speed you like.

自行决定飞行速度: 你可以忽略先前管制员对于飞行速度的要求,你可以按照你的喜好决定飞行速度。

Other instructions by tower:

塔台管制员的其他指令:

Descent to pattern altitude: This means you should descend to 1500feet AAL, Above Aerodrome Level. You will read more about this later.

下降到五边飞行高度: 这意味着你应该降低到1500英尺 AAL(高于机场平面)

Cleared to land: You are cleared to land ONLY, this instruction can come with a number, IE: You are cleared to land, #2”. Maintain your own separation and happy landing!

准许落地: 你被许可只可以落地全停,这个指令中可能会伴随排序。举例来说:你被许可第二个落地。此时你要保持与前机的安全间隔。

Cleared for the option, after the option make left / right pattern: You are cleared to do what you want, make a full stop landing, a touch and go, a fly by or something else. After the option you join the pattern again to the left or the right.

准许落地或连续或低空通场等,完成后之进入左 / 右五边飞行: 你被许可做你想做的事情。比如全停,连续起飞,低空通场等。在这之后你将再次进入左/右的五边飞行。

Always keep a lookout for traffic in the pattern, as being PIC are responsible for the separation most of the time. The tower controller will send you a sequence number and you are expected to follow this order. It is very easy to see on the map where you are and you can count the airplanes in front of you. For example, if you are #3 that means there are 2 airplanes in front of you. It is made easier when the tower tells you “number 3, traffic to follow is on right downwind”. Now you know the exact location of the traffic to follow so you can look on the map and keep the traffic in sight at all times.

要持续观察五边内的交通状况,作为机长大多数时候要对间隔负责。塔台管制员会发送给你排序编号,你被期望按照这个排序进行飞行。在地图上你很容易看出你在哪里,并数出你前面有几架飞机。举个例子,如果你收到3号,那么意味着你前面会有两架飞机。当你收到“第3位,跟随右三边的飞机”会很容易辨别。此时你需要确认你需要跟随的飞机的具体位置,并时刻保持这架飞机在你的是视线里。

When you are cleared to land / for the option and you are #1 then you have to decide yourself when to turn base and / or final.

当你收到准许落地或准许落地或连续并处于第一位时,你需要自行决定何时转向四边或五边。

The second option you have to fly a pattern is under control with approach. This is easier as ATC will give you radar vectors for your downwind / base legs and altitudes so you don’t have to worry about separation from other traffic.

第二种可能性是你在进近管制员的管制下进行五边飞行。这样会变得更简单,因为进近管制员会对你的三边/四边转向进行雷达引导,并给你对应的飞行高度。所以你不必担心与其他飞机的间隔。

Some tips on flying a pattern:

五边飞行的一些提示:

· Do not fly your downwind leg at 250 knots, use a maximum speed of around 180-200 knots.

· 在三边不要超过250节,使用大概180-200节的最大速度进行飞行。

· While turning base reduce your speed to around 160-180 knots. The slower you fly your baseturn the more time you have to establish yourself on final.

· 在转向时降低速度到160-180节。越慢的4转弯会给你更多的时间在五边建立下滑道。

· Do not turn downwind with a steep turn, you will need some space from the runway to establish yourself later and to make it easier for yourself while turning base / final.

· 不要在二转弯时急转弯,你需要保持与跑道有一定的距离让你在建立下滑道时使用,并且能够让你更容进行3转弯和4转弯。

· Do not overshoot the runway centerline, especially not while flying a pattern on an airport with parallel runways.

· 不要超过跑道中线,尤其是在平行跑道进行五边飞行。

Flying a pattern with a JET:

驾驶喷气式客机进行五边飞行:
Normally a visual pattern is flown at 1500ft AAL, Above Aerodrome Level. The base turn should start 45 seconds after passing abeam the downwind threshold ( + / - 1 second /kt of head/tailwind). This means that if you have a 5 knots headwind you will need to extend your downwind leg by 5 seconds so you will fly it for 50 seconds. If you have a 10 knots tailwind you will need to reduce it by 10 seconds so you will get a downwind leg of 35 seconds.

一般来说目视五边飞行的高度是1500英尺AAL。3转弯应该在超过正切跑道入口45秒后开始(逆风时+1秒/节,顺风时-1秒/节)。意味着如果有5节逆风,你应该延长三边时间多5秒,也就是共50秒。如果有10节顺风,你应该减少三边时间少10秒,也就是共计35秒。

Initially the rate of descent should be around 400 ft/min, this should be increased to 700ft/min when established on the correct descent path. For a reference you can use the ILS glide slope or the GPS glide path indicator.

最初的下降率应该在400英尺/分钟左右,当正确建立下滑道后应增加至700英尺/分钟。作为参考,你可以使用ILS下滑道或者GPS下滑道指示器。

Here a detailed example of a pattern for the 737NG.

下面是737NG的五边飞行的例子。
image

Any questions, as always don’t hesitate to ask. Good luck and I hope this information was helpful.

有任何问题不要犹豫,可以向我们询问。祝你飞行顺利。希望这些信息能帮助到你。

11 Likes

感谢nek的分享!学到了

4 Likes

长篇巨制!!详细解剖!!内部披露!!IF玩家必看之教程
)震惊部还招人么?

7 Likes

感谢Jerry校对!
希望对大家有帮助!

3 Likes

感谢分享,受益良多!!

3 Likes

屈尊来uc部吗?:stuck_out_tongue_winking_eye:

and感谢nek分享:heart_eyes:

5 Likes

没ATC的话就要自己报告位置了

我有一次在ES飞五边每转一个弯就报一次atc结果atc给我警告,幸亏我秒退,不然又一次被鬼 :09:

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感謝分享喔!幫助很大。

1 Like